The Arabic Alphabet comprises twenty-eight letters. All these letters are consonants. Besides the [alif] ا and the [alifal-madd] آ, the Arabic Alphabet has thirty letters. Here is a list of these sounds ordered according to their place of production, namely from the front to the back of the oral passage.
The Arabic Alphabet
Unlike many other languages, Arabic has only three vowel sounds in the above inventory. These are: و ، ي ، ا. We call them long vowels الحَرَكَات الطَّوِيْلَة [al-Harakaat aT-Tawiilah] in Arabic. Each of them has a corresponding short vowel. We call the short vowels الحَرَكَات القَصِيْرَة [al-Harakaat al-qaSiirah]. They are not letters, rather diacritical marks (i.e. secondary sounds). The corresponding short vowel for ا is َ [fatHah]; the corresponding short vowel for ي is ِ [kasrah]; and the corresponding short vowel for و is ُ [DHammah].
The short vowels separately accompany all the regular letters / sounds resulting in three different pronunciations for each. With the [fatHa] (pronounced as a), we pronounce them as ba, ma, wa, fa, tha, … etc, as in the second column in the table. With the [kasrah] (pronounced as i), we pronounce them as bi, mi, wi, fi, thi, …etc., as in the third column. With [DHammah] (pronounced as u), we pronounced them as bu, mu, wu, fu, thu, …etc., as in the last column. You can read a more elaborate explanation of Vowels in Arabic here.
In the next lesson, you will learn how these sounds are pronounced if followed by long vowels.