Attached Subject Pronouns with the Regular Perfective Verbs

In this lesson, we look at the attached subject pronouns with regular perfective verbs. In a previous lesson, we briefly looked at the common personal pronouns. The personal pronoun الضَّمِيْر المُنْفَصِل refers to the person who’s speaking (1st person), the person we speak to (2nd person), or the person we speak about (3rd person). For each, there are corresponding attached pronouns. The attached pronoun الضَّمِيْر المُتَّصِل is a suffix that is added the end of verbs, nouns, or prepositions. Grammatically, the attached pronoun is either a subject attached pronoun or an object attached pronoun. Here, the focus on the subject attached pronouns, specifically those attached subjective pronouns with the regular perfective form of the verb الفِعْلُ المَاضِي.
The personal pronoun The attached pronoun Perfective form examples
أنَا ـتُ

كَتَبْـتُ رِسَالَةً – I wrote a letter

شَرِبْـتُ كُوبًا مِنَ الشَّاي – I drank a cup of tea

رَقَدْتُ عَلَى الكَنَبَة – I slept on the sofa

نَحْنُ ـنَا

ذَهَبْـنَا إِلَى السُّوْق – we went to the market

شَاهَدْنَا التِّلْفَاز – we watched the TV

نَظَّفْـنَا البَيْت – we cleaned the house

أَنْتَ ـتَ

قَرَأْتَ رُوَايَة جَدِيْدَة – you read a new novel

ضَحِكْـتَ مَعَهُم – you laughed with them

فَتَحْـتَ البَاب – you opened the door

أَنْتِ ـتِ

خَرَجْـتِ مِنَ البَيْت – you went out

طَبَخْـتِ بَامِيَة – you cooked okra

غَسَلْـتِ مَلابِسَكِ – you washed your clothes

أَنْتُم ـتُم

لَعِبْـتُم فِي الحَدِيْقة – you played in the garden

قَفَزْتُم إِلَى النَّهر – you jumped to the river

سَبَحْـتُم فِي النَّهْر – you swam in the river

أَنْتُنَّ ـتُنَّ

نَزَلْـتُنَّ مِنَ السَّيَّارَة – you got off the car

فَتَحْـتُنَّ بَابَ السَّيَّارَة – you opened the car door

عَرَفْـتُنَّ الإِجَابَة – you knew the answer

هُوَ ..

دَرَسَ التَّارِيْخ – he studied history

أَخَذَ الكِـتَاب – he took book

حَمَلَ الشَّنْطَة – he carried the bag

هِيَ ... تْ

جَلَسَتْ عَلَى المَقْعَد – she sat on the bench

ذَهَبَتْ إِلَى الجَامِعَة – she went to the university

دَخَلَتْ إِلَى الغُرْفَة – she came in to the room

هُم ـوَا

رَفَضُـوا الفِكْرَة – they rejected the idea

عَطَسُـواthey sneezed

رَجَعُـوا إِلَى البَيْت – they returned home

هُنَّ ـنَ

لَبِسْـنَ مَلابِس جِدِيْدة – they wore new clothes

سَافَرْنَ إِلَى القَرِيَة – they traveled to the village

طبَخْـنَ العَشَاء – they cooked dinner

The attached pronouns in the above example function as a subject فَاعِل (i.e. the person who did the action). With هُوَ and هِيَ, there is no attached pronoun because it is covert مُسْتَتِر; that is, it does not overtly surface as a suffix at the verb end. Here are more examples of perfective forms with هُوَ and هِيَ:
هُوَ سَافَرَ إِلَى أُسْتَرَالِيَا – he travelled to Australia كَتَبَ رُوَايَة جَدِيْدَة – he wrote a new novel رَكِبَ سَيَّارَتَه إِلَى العَمَل – he rode / took his car work شَرِبَ كَأسًا مِنَ الحَلِيْب – he drank a glass of milk There is no clear attached pronoun for هُوَ. It is understood from the context as هُوَ. This is called covert pronoun ضَمِيْر مُسْتَتِر.
هِيَ سَافَرَتْ إِلَى أُسْتَرَالِيا. كَتَبَتْ رُوَايَة جَدِيْدة. رَكِبَتْ سَيَّارَتَها إِلَى العَمَل. شَرِبَتْ كَأسًا مِنَ الحَلِيْب. the تْ at the end of the verb is not for the subject. It marks the feminine. The subject pronoun is covert understood as هِيَ.
The forms of the verb with هُوَ and هِيَ are the same. That is, no attached pronoun surfaces at the verb end—it is covert. The only difference between the two forms is that the feminine marker تْ is added when the covert pronoun is هِيَ.
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