In this lesson, we look at the attached subject pronouns with regular perfective verbs. In a previous lesson, we briefly looked at the common personal pronouns. The personal pronoun الضَّمِيْر المُنْفَصِل refers to the person who’s speaking (1st person), the person we speak to (2nd person), or the person we speak about (3rd person). For each, there are corresponding attached pronouns. The attached pronoun الضَّمِيْر المُتَّصِل is a suffix that is added the end of verbs, nouns, or prepositions.
Grammatically, the attached pronoun is either a subject attached pronoun or an object attached pronoun. Here, the focus on the subject attached pronouns, specifically those attached subjective pronouns with the regular perfective form of the verb الفِعْلُ المَاضِي.
|The personal pronoun||The attached pronoun||Perfective form examples|
كَتَبْـتُ رِسَالَةً – I wrote a letter
شَرِبْـتُ كُوبًا مِنَ الشَّاي – I drank a cup of tea
رَقَدْتُ عَلَى الكَنَبَة – I slept on the sofa
ذَهَبْـنَا إِلَى السُّوْق – we went to the market
شَاهَدْنَا التِّلْفَاز – we watched the TV
نَظَّفْـنَا البَيْت – we cleaned the house
قَرَأْتَ رُوَايَة جَدِيْدَة – you read a new novel
ضَحِكْـتَ مَعَهُم – you laughed with them
فَتَحْـتَ البَاب – you opened the door
خَرَجْـتِ مِنَ البَيْت – you went out
طَبَخْـتِ بَامِيَة – you cooked okra
غَسَلْـتِ مَلابِسَكِ – you washed your clothes
لَعِبْـتُم فِي الحَدِيْقة – you played in the garden
قَفَزْتُم إِلَى النَّهر – you jumped to the river
سَبَحْـتُم فِي النَّهْر – you swam in the river
نَزَلْـتُنَّ مِنَ السَّيَّارَة – you got off the car
فَتَحْـتُنَّ بَابَ السَّيَّارَة – you opened the car door
عَرَفْـتُنَّ الإِجَابَة – you knew the answer
دَرَسَ التَّارِيْخ – he studied history
أَخَذَ الكِـتَاب – he took book
حَمَلَ الشَّنْطَة – he carried the bag
جَلَسَتْ عَلَى المَقْعَد – she sat on the bench
ذَهَبَتْ إِلَى الجَامِعَة – she went to the university
دَخَلَتْ إِلَى الغُرْفَة – she came in to the room
رَفَضُـوا الفِكْرَة – they rejected the idea
عَطَسُـوا – they sneezed
رَجَعُـوا إِلَى البَيْت – they returned home
لَبِسْـنَ مَلابِس جِدِيْدة – they wore new clothes
سَافَرْنَ إِلَى القَرِيَة – they traveled to the village
طبَخْـنَ العَشَاء – they cooked dinner
The attached pronouns in the above example function as a subject فَاعِل (i.e. the person who did the action). With هُوَ and هِيَ, there is no attached pronoun because it is covert مُسْتَتِر; that is, it does not overtly surface as a suffix at the verb end.
Here are more examples of perfective forms with هُوَ and هِيَ:
|هُوَ||سَافَرَ إِلَى أُسْتَرَالِيَا – he travelled to Australia|
كَتَبَ رُوَايَة جَدِيْدَة – he wrote a new novel
رَكِبَ سَيَّارَتَه إِلَى العَمَل – he rode / took his car work
شَرِبَ كَأسًا مِنَ الحَلِيْب – he drank a glass of milk
|There is no clear attached pronoun for هُوَ. It is understood from the context as هُوَ. This is called covert pronoun ضَمِيْر مُسْتَتِر.|
|هِيَ||سَافَرَتْ إِلَى أُسْتَرَالِيا. |
كَتَبَتْ رُوَايَة جَدِيْدة.
رَكِبَتْ سَيَّارَتَها إِلَى العَمَل.
شَرِبَتْ كَأسًا مِنَ الحَلِيْب.
|the تْ at the end of the verb is not for the subject. It marks the feminine. The subject pronoun is covert understood as هِيَ.|
|The forms of the verb with هُوَ and هِيَ are the same. That is, no attached pronoun surfaces at the verb end—it is covert. The only difference between the two forms is that the feminine marker تْ is added when the covert pronoun is هِيَ.|